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Types of Maintenance

Maintenance of industrial equipment has traditionally been conducted on a time-based schedule, but as only a relatively small percentage of components are worn out at the end of their designated life, this can be inefficient and lead to unnecessary stoppages. To overcome this, manufacturers employ a combination of reactive and proactive strategies to optimize maintenance while ensuring that the equipment is fully utilized and any potential issues are identified.

Reactive maintenance (RM)

Also known as breakdown or run-to-failure maintenance, is a philosophy of repairing equipment after it breaks down with the goal of restoring machinery to its normal operating condition. Since repairs are unplanned, this approach is typically used for non-essential or low-cost equipment that can easily be repaired or replaced.

Preventive maintenance (PM)

PM is an established routine of regularly inspecting equipment to look for and fix issues before they turn into major problems. This method includes a regular schedule of checkups and maintenance tasks to keep equipment in top condition. It also provides a framework to identify and address needed repairs before they result in unplanned downtime.

Predictive maintenance (PdM)

(PdM) and condition-based maintenance are often confused, as both maintenance types occur before breakdowns happen. The primary difference between them is the way in which maintenance is measured. Both monitor the health and condition of an asset but condition monitoring focuses on real-time conditions, while predictive maintenance has focused on the very 00000096early detection of defects.

Condition-based monitoring (CBM)

(CBM) focuses on real-time data gained by placing sensors at key locations inside the equipment to monitor performance and health during normal operation. The sensors continually screen equipment to detect changes and alert engineers to issues like excessive humidity levels, overheating, loss of cooling capacity, or presence of harmful chemicals that can be early predictors of potential failure.

Condition monitoring provides real-time situational awareness of the asset’s operation and health, enabling plant management teams to schedule maintenance and corrective actions in advance. Further, the data collected can be used to establish trends, predict failure, and calculate the remaining life of an asset.

Condition monitoring is not a new capability when maintaining electric motors and rotating equipment. Standardized condition monitoring techniques for rotating equipment like pumps, fans and motors have long been established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

Source: FEMP O&M Best Practices Guide, Release 3.0 August 2010

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